Kyungpook Mathematical Journal 2018; 58(4): 677-688
Coefficient Estimates for a Subclass of Bi-univalent Functions Defined by Sălăgean Type q-Calculus Operator
Prakash Namdeo Kamble
Department of Mathematics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, India
e-mail : kamble.prakash69@gmail.com

Mallikarjun Gurullingappa Shrigan∗
Department of Mathematics, Dr. D Y Patil School of Engineering and Technology, Pune 412205, India
e-mail : mgshrigan@gmail.com
*Corresponding Author.
Received: March 7, 2018; Revised: September 25, 2018; Accepted: October 2, 2018; Published online: December 23, 2018.
© Kyungpook Mathematical Journal. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract

In this paper, we introduce and investigate a new subclass of bi-univalent functions defined by Sălăgean q-calculus operator in the open disk . For functions belonging to the subclass, we obtain estimates on the first two Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients |a2| and |a3|. Some consequences of the main results are also observed.

Keywords: analytic functions, bi-univalent functions, coefficient bounds, Sălăgean q-differential operator , Sălăgean derivative.
1. Introduction

Let denote the family of functions analytic in the open unit disk

$U={z:z∈ℂ and ∣z∣<1},$

which are normalized by the condition:

$f(0)=f′(0)-1=0$

and given by the following Taylor-Maclaurin series:

$f(z)=z+∑k=2∞ak zk.$

Also let be the class of functions of the form given by (1.1), which are univalent in . The Koebe one-quarter theorem  ensures that the image of under every univalent function contains a disk of radius $14$. Hence every function has an inverse f−1, defined by

$f-1(f(z))=z, (z∈U)$

and

$f-1(f(w))=w, (∣w∣

where

$f-1(w)=w-a2w2+(2a22-a3)w3-(5a23-5a2a3+a4)w4+….$

A function is said to be bi-univalent in if both f and f−1 are univalent in . Let ∑ denote the class of bi-univalent functions in given by the Taylor-Maclaurin series expansion (1.1). For a brief history and interesting examples of functions in the class ∑, see  (see also ). From the work of Srivastava et al. , we choose to recall the following examples of functions in the class ∑:

$z1-z, -log(1-z), 12log(1+z1-z).$

However, familiar Koebe function is not a member of ∑.

The class of bi-univalent functions was investigated by Lewin , who proved that |a2| < 1.51. In 1981, Styer and Wright  showed that |a2| > 4/3. Subsequently, Brannan and Clunie  improved Lewin’s result to $∣a2∣≤2$. Netanyahu , showed that $maxf∈Σ∣a2∣=43$. In 1985, Branges  proved Bieberbach conjecture which showed that

$∣an∣≤n; (n∈N-1),$

N being positive integer.

The problem of finding coefficient estimates for the bi-univalent functions has received much attention in recent years. In fact, the aforecited work of Srivastava et al.  essentially revived the investigation of various subclasses of bi-univalent function class ∑ in recent years and that it leads to a flood of papers on the subject (see, for e.g., [6, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29]); it was followed by such works as those by Tang et al . , Xu et al . [32, 33] and Lashin , and others (see, for e.g., [1, 5, 8]). The coefficient estimate problem involving the bound of |an|(n ∈ ℕ {1, 2}) for each f ∈ ∑ is still an open problem.

In the field of geometric function theory, various subclasses of the normalized analytic function class have been studied from different view points. The q-calculus as well as the fractional calculus provide important tools that have been used in order to investigate various subclasses of . Historically speaking, the firm footing of the usage of the q-calculus in the context of geometric function theory which was actually provided and q-hypergeometric functions were first used in geometric function theory in a book chapter by Srivastava (see, for details, [18, pp. 347 et seq.]). Ismail et al.  introduced the class of generalized complex functions via q-calculus on some subclasses of analytic functions. Recently, Purohit and Raina  investigated applications of fractional q-calculus operator to define new classes of functions which are analytic in unit disk (see, for details, ).

For 0 < q < 1, the q-derivative of a function f given by (1.1) is defined as

$Dqf(z)={f(qz)-f(z)(q-1)zfor z≠0,f′(0)for z=0.$

We note that $limq→1-Dqf(z)=f′(z)$. From (1.2), we deduce that

$Dqf(z)=1+∑k=2∞[k]qakzk-1,$

where as q → 1

$[k]q=1-qk1-q=1+q+…+qk→k.$

Making use of the q-differential operator for function , we introduced the Sălăgean q-differential operator as given below

$Dq0f(z)=f(z)Dq1f(z)=zDqf(z)Dqnf(z)=zDq(Dqn-1f(z))Dqnf(z)=z+∑k=2∞[k]qnakzk (n∈ℕ0,z∈U).$

We note that limq → 1

$Dnf(z)=z+∑k=2∞knakzk (n∈ℕ0,z∈U),$

the familiar Sălăgean derivative .

Recently, Kamble and Shrigan  introduce the following two subclasses of the bi-univalent function class ∑ and obtained estimate on first two Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in these subclasses as follows.

### Definition 1.1.()

For 0 < α ≤ 1, 0 < q < 1, λ ≥ 1, μ ≥ 0 and n ∈ ℕ0, a function f(z) given by (1.1) is said to be in the class$ℋΣq,μ(n,α,λ)$ if the following conditions are satisfied

$f∈Σ and |arg((1-λ) (Dqnf(z)z)μ+λ(Dqnf(z))′(Dqnf(z)z)μ-1)|<απ2$

and

$|arg((1-λ) (Dqng(w)w)μ+λ(Dqng(w))′(Dqng(w)w)μ-1)|<απ2,$

where the function g is given by

$g(w)=w-a2w2+(2a22-a3)w3-(5a23-5a2a3+a4)w4+…$

and $Dqn$ is the Sălăgean q-differential operator.

### Theorem 1.2.()

Let f(z) given by (1.1) be in the function class$ℋΣq,μ(n,α,λ)$. Then

$∣a2∣≤2αα(2(2λ+μ)qn-(λ2+2λ+μ)q2n)+(λ+μ)2q2n$

and

$∣a3∣≤4α2(λ+μ)2q2n+2α(2λ+μ)qn,$

where 0 < α ≤ 1, 0 < q < 1, λ ≥ 1, μ ≥ 0 and n ∈ ℕ0.

### Definition 1.3.()

For 0 ≤ β < 1, 0 < q < 1, λ ≥ 1, μ ≥ 0 and n ∈ ℕ0, a function f(z) given by (1.1) is said to be in the class$ℋΣq,μ(n,β,λ)$ if the following conditions are satisfied

$f∈Σ and Re{(1-λ) (Dqnf(z)z)μ+λ(Dqnf(z))′(Dqnf(z)z)μ-1}>β$

and

$Re{(1-λ) (Dqng(w)w)μ+λ(Dqng(w))′(Dqng(w)w)μ-1}>β.$

### Theorem 1.4.()

Let f(z) given by (1.1) be in the function class$ℋΣq,μ(n,β,λ)$. Then

$∣a2∣≤min{4(1-β)∣2qn+(μ-1)q2n(2λ+μ)∣,2(1-β)(λ+μ)qn}$

and

$∣a3∣≤min{4(1-β)2(λ+μ)2q2n+2(1-β)(2λ+μ)qn,(1-β) {∣4qn+q2n(μ-1)∣-q2n(∣μ-1∣)}∣2qn+(μ-1)q2n∣(2λ+μ)qn},$

where 0 ≤ β < 1, 0 < q < 1, λ ≥ 1, μ ≥ 0 and n ∈ ℕ0.

### Remark 1.5

By appropriately specializing the parameters in Definition 1.1 and 1.3, we can get several known subclasses of the bi-univalent function class ∑. For example:

• For n = 0 and q → 1, we obtain the bi-univalent function classes $ℋΣ1,μ(0,α,λ)=NΣμ(α,λ) and ℋΣ1,μ(0,β,λ)=NΣμ(β,λ)$(see [ 21]);

• For μ = 1, n = 0 and q → 1, we obtain the bi-univalent function classes $ℋΣ1,1(0,α,λ)=ℬΣ(α,λ) and ℋΣ1,1(0,β,λ)=ℬΣ(β,λ)$(see [ 8]);

• For μ = 1 and q → 1 we obtain the bi-univalent function classes $ℋΣ1,1(n,α,λ)=ℬΣ(n,α,λ) and ℋΣ1,1(n,β,λ)=ℬΣ(n,β,λ)$(see [ 15]);

• For μ = 1, n = 0, λ = 1 and q → 1, we obtain the bi-univalent function classes $ℋΣ1,1(0,α,1)=ℋΣα and ℋΣ1,1(0,β,1)=ℋΣ(β)$(see [ 28]);

• For μ = 0, n = 0, λ = 1 and q → 1, we obtain the bi-univalent function classes $ℋΣ1,0(0,α,1)=SΣ*(α) and ℋΣ1,0(0,β,1)=SΣ*(β)$(see [ 4]);

This paper is a sequel to some of the aforecited works (especially see [11, 32, 33]). Here we introduce and investigate the general subclass $ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q) (0 of the analytic function class , which is given by Definition 1.6 below.

### Definition 1.6

Let h, be analytic functions and

$min{Re(h(z)),Re(p(z))}>0 (z∈U) and h(0)=p(0)=1.$

Also let the function f given by (1.1), be in the analytic function class . We say that$f∈ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q) (0

if the following conditions satisfied:

$f∈Σ and (1-λ) (Dqnf(z)z)μ+λ(Dqnf(z))′(Dqnf(z)z)μ-1∈h(U) (z∈U)$

and

$(1-λ) (Dqng(w)w)μ+λ(Dqng(w))′(Dqng(w)w)μ-1∈p(U) (w∈U),$

where the function g is given by (1.9).

If $f∈ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q)$, then

$f∈Σ and |arg((1-λ) (Dqnf(z)z)μ+λ(Dqnf(z))′(Dqnf(z)z)μ-1)|<απ2$

and

$|arg((1-λ) (Dqng(w)w)μ+λ(Dqng(w))′(Dqng(w)w)μ-1)|<απ2$

or

$f∈Σ and Re{(1-λ) (Dqnf(z)z)μ+λ(Dqnf(z))′(Dqnf(z)z)μ-1}>β$

and

$Re{(1-λ) (Dqng(w)w)μ+λ(Dqng(w))′(Dqng(w)w)μ-1}>β.$

where the function g is given by (1.9).

Our paper is motivated and stimulated especially by the work of Srivastava et al. [21, 28]. Here we propose to investigate the bi-univalent function subclass $ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q)$ of the function class ∑ and find estimates on the initial coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in the new subclass of the function class ∑ using Sălăgean q-differential operator.

### 2. A Set of General Coefficient Estimates

In this section, we derive estimates on the initial coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in subclass $ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q)$ given by Definition 1.6.

### Theorem 2.1

Let the function f(z) given by Taylor-Maclaurin series expansion (1.1) be in the function class$ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q)$. Then

$∣a2∣≤min{∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣22(λ+μ)2q2n,∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣2(2λ+μ)∣(μ-1)q2n+2qn∣}$

and

$∣a3∣≤min{∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣22(λ+μ)2q2n+∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣4(2λ+μ)qn,∣(μ-1)q2n+4qn∣ ∣h″(0)∣+∣μ-1∣q2n∣p″(0)∣4(2λ+μ)qn∣(μ-1)q2n+2qn∣},$

where 0 < q < 1, λ ≥ 1, μ ≥ 0 and n ∈ ℕ0.

Proof

It follows from (1.16) and (1.17) that

$(1-λ) (Dqnf(z)z)μ+λ(Dqnf(z))′(Dqnf(z)z)μ-1=h(U)$

and

$(1-λ) (Dqng(w)w)μ+λ(Dqng(w))′(Dqng(w)w)μ-1=p(U)$

Comparing the coefficients of z and z2 in (2.3) and (2.4), we have

$(λ+μ) qna2=h1,$$(μ-1) (λ+μ2) q2na22+(2λ+μ) qna3=h2,$$-(λ+μ) qna2=p1$

and

$-(2λ+μ) qna3+(4qn+(μ-1) q2n) (λ+μ2) a22=p2.$

From (2.5) and (2.7), we obtain

$h1=-p1$

and

$2(λ+μ)2q2na22=h12+p12.$

Also, from (2.6) and (2.8), we find that

${(μ-1) q2n+2qn} (2λ+μ)2a22=h2+p2.$

Therefore, we find from the equations (2.10) and (2.11) that

$∣a2∣≤∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣22(λ+μ)2q2n$

and

$∣a2∣≤∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣2(2λ+μ)∣(μ-1) q2n+2qn,$

respectively. So we get the desired estimate on the coefficients |a2| as asserted in (2.1).

Next, in order to find the bound on the coefficient |a3|, we subtract (2.8) from (2.6), we get

$2(2λ+μ) qna3-2qn(2λ+μ)a22=h2-p2.$

Upon substituting the value of $a22$ from (2.10) into (2.12), we arrive at

$a3=h12+p122(λ+μ)2q2n+h2-p22(2λ+μ) qn.$

We thus find that

$∣a3∣≤∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣22(λ+μ)2q2n+∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣4(2λ+μ) qn.$

On the other hand, upon substituting the value of $a22$ from (2.11) into (2.12), we arrive at

$a3={(μ-1) q2n+4qn}h2+(μ-1) q2np22(2λ+μ) qn{(μ-1) q2n+2qn}.$

Consequently, we have

$∣a3∣≤∣(μ-1) q2n+4qn∣ ∣h″(0)∣+∣μ-1∣ q2n∣p″(0)∣4(2λ+μ) qn ∣(μ-1) q2n+2qn∣.$

This evidently completes the proof of Theorem 2.1.

3. Corollaries and Consequences

By Setting μ = 1, q → 1 and n = 0 in Theorem 2.1, we deduce the following consequence of Theorem 2.1.

### Corollary 3.1

Let the function f(z) given by Taylor-Maclaurin series expansion (1.1) be in the function class$ℬΣh,p(λ) (λ≥1)$. Then

$∣a2∣≤min{∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣22(1+λ)2,∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣4(1+2λ)}$

and

$∣a3∣≤min{∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣22(1+λ)2+∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣4(1+2λ),∣h″(0)∣2(1+2λ)}.$

By Setting μ = 0, λ = 1, q → 1 and n = 0 in Theorem 2.1, we deduce the following.

### Corollary 3.2.()

Let the function f(z) given by Taylor-Maclaurin series expansion (1.1) be in the function class$ℬΣh,p$. Then

$∣a2∣≤min{∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣22,∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣4}$

and

$∣a3∣≤min{∣h′(0)∣2+∣p′(0)∣28+∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣8,3∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣8}.$

### Remark 3.3

Corollary 3.2 is an improvement of the following estimates obtained by Xu et al . .

### Corollary 3.4.()

Let the function f(z) given by Taylor-Maclaurin series expansion (1.1) be in the function class$ℬΣh,p(λ) (λ≥1)$. Then

$∣a2∣≤∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣4(1+2λ)$

and

$∣a3∣≤∣h″(0)∣2(1+2λ).$

By Setting λ = 1, μ = 1, q → 1 and n = 0 in Theorem 2.1, we deduce the following Corollary 3.5.

### Corollary 3.5.()

Let the function f(z) given by Taylor-Maclaurin series expansion (1.1) be in the function class$ℋΣh,p$. Then

$∣a2∣≤∣h″(0)∣+∣p″(0)∣12$

and

$∣a3∣≤∣h″(0)∣6.$
4. Concluding Remarks and Observations

The main objective in this paper has been to derive first two Taylor-Maclaurin coefficient estimates for functions belonging to a new subclass $ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q)$ of analytic and bi-univalent function in the open unit disk . Indeed, by using Sălăgean q-calculus operator, we have successfully determined the first two Taylor-Maclaurin coefficient estimates for functions belonging to a new subclass $ℋΣh,p(λ,μ,n,q)$.

By means of corollaries and consequences which we discuss in the preceding section by suitable specializing the parameters λ and μ, we have also shown already that the results presented in this paper would generalize and improve some recent works of Xu et al . [32, 33] and other authors.

Acknowledgements

We thank the referees for their insightful suggestions and scholarly guidance to revise and improve the results as in present form.

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